India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: Bhārat Gaṇarājya) is a country in South Asia.
It is the second-most populous country, the seventh-largest country by area, and the most populous democracy in the world.
Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west;China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east.
Modern humans arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa no later than 55,000 years ago.
Settled life emerged on the subcontinent in the western margins of the Indus river basin 9,000 years ago, evolving gradually into the Indus Valley Civilisation of the third millennium BCE.
By 1200 BCE, an archaic form of Sanskrit, an Indo-European language, had diffused into India from the northwest, unfolding as the language of the Rigveda, and recording the dawning of Hinduism in India.
Muslim armies from Central Asia intermittently overran India’s northern plains, eventually establishing the Delhi Sultanate, and drawing northern India into the cosmopolitan networks of medieval Islam.
British Crown rule began in 1858. The rights promised to Indians were granted slowly,but technological changes were introduced, and ideas of education, modernity and the public life took root.
In 1947 the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two independent dominions, a Hindu-majority Dominion of India and a Muslim-majority Dominion of Pakistan, amid large-scale loss of life and an unprecedented migration.India has been a secular federal republic since 1950, governed in a democratic parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society. India’s population grew from 361 million in 1951 to 1,211 million in 2011.During the same time, its nominal per capita income increased from US$64 annually to US$1,498, and its literacy rate from 16.6% to 74%. From being a comparatively destitute country in 1951.
It has a space programme which includes several planned or completed extraterrestrial missions. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture.
India has substantially reduced its rate of poverty, though at the cost of increasing economic inequality.
India is a nuclear weapons state, which ranks high in military expenditure. It has disputes over Kashmir with its neighbours, Pakistan and China, unresolved since the mid-20th century.
Among the socio-economic challenges India faces are gender inequality, child malnutrition,and rising levels of air pollution.
• According to the Oxford English Dictionary (Third Edition 2009), the name “India” is derived from the Classical Latin India, a reference to South Asia and an uncertain region to its east; and in turn derived successively from: Hellenistic Greek India ( Ἰνδία); ancient Greek Indos ( Ἰνδός); Old Persian Hindush, an eastern province of the Achaemenid empire; and ultimately its cognate, the Sanskrit Sindhu, or “river,” specifically the Indus river and, by implication, its well-settled southern basin.
• The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi (Ἰνδοί), which translates as “The people of the Indus”.
• The term Bharat (Bhārat; pronounced [ˈbʱaːɾət] mentioned in both Indian epic poetry and the Constitution of India, is used in its variations by many Indian languages. A modern rendering of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which applied originally to a region of the Gangetic Valley,Bharat gained increased currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India.
• Hindustan ([ɦɪndʊˈstaːn]is a Middle Persian name for India, introduced during the Mughal Empire and used widely since. Its meaning has varied, referring to a region encompassing present-day northern India and Pakistan or to India in its near entirety.
Early modern India:
Historians consider India’s modern age to have begun sometime between 1848 and 1885.
The appointment in 1848 of Lord Dalhousie as Governor General of the East India Company set the stage for changes essential to a modern state. These included the consolidation and demarcation of sovereignty, the surveillance of the population, and the education of citizens. Technological changes—among them, railways, canals, and the telegraph—were introduced not long after their introduction in Europe.
However, disaffection with the company also grew during this time and set off the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Fed by diverse resentments and perceptions, including invasive British-style social reforms, harsh land taxes, and summary treatment of some rich landowners and princes, the rebellion rocked many regions of northern and central India and shook the foundations of Company rule.
Although the rebellion was suppressed by 1858, it led to the dissolution of the East India Company and the direct administration of India by the British government.
Proclaiming a unitary state and a gradual but limited British-style parliamentary system, the new rulers also protected princes and landed gentry as a feudal safeguard against future unrest.
In the decades following, public life gradually emerged all over India, leading eventually to the founding of the Indian National Congress in 1885.
The rush of technology and the commercialisation of agriculture in the second half of the 19th century was marked by economic setbacks and many small farmers became dependent on the whims of far-away markets.
There was an increase in the number of large-scale famines and, despite the risks of infrastructure development borne by Indian taxpayers, little industrial employment was generated for Indians.
There were also salutary effects: commercial cropping, especially in the newly canalled Punjab, led to increased food production for internal consumption.
The railway network provided critical famine relief, notably reduced the cost of moving goods,and helped nascent Indian-owned industry.
After World War I, in which approximately one million Indians served, a new period began. It was marked by British reforms but also repressive legislation, by more strident Indian calls for self-rule, and by the beginnings of a nonviolent movement of non-co-operation, of which Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi would become the leader and enduring symbol.
During the 1930s, slow legislative reform was enacted by the British; the Indian National Congress won victories in the resulting elections.The next decade was beset with crises: Indian participation in World War II, the Congress’s final push for non-co-operation, and an upsurge of Muslim nationalism. All were capped by the advent of independence in 1947, but tempered by the partition of India into two states: India and Pakistan.
The India–Pakistan nuclear rivalry came to a head in 1998.
India’s sustained democratic freedoms are unique among the world’s newer nations; however, in spite of its recent economic successes, freedom from want for its disadvantaged population remains a goal yet to be achieved.
Eleven most important thing which make India name in top of the world :
• The floating post office
India has the largest postal network in the world with over 1, 55,015 post offices. A single post office on an average serves a population of 7,175 people. The floating post office in Dal Lake, Srinagar, was inaugurated in August 2011.
• Kumbh Mela gathering visible from space
The 2011 Kumbh Mela was the largest gathering of people with over 75 million pilgrims. The gathering was so huge that the crowd was visible from space.
• The highest cricket ground in the world
At an altitude of 2,444 meters, the Chail Cricket Ground in Chail, Himachal Pradesh, is the highest in the world. It was built in 1893 and is a part of the Chail Military School.
• The Indian national Kabaddi team has won all World Cups
India has won all 5 men’s Kabaddi World Cups held till now and have been undefeated throughout these tournaments. The Indian women’s team has also won all Kabaddi World Cups held till date.
• Water on the moon was discovered by India
In September 2009, India’s ISRO Chandrayaan- 1 using its Moon Mineralogy Mapper detected water on the moon for the first time.
• The first rocket in India was transported on a cycle
The first rocket was so light and small that it was transported on a bicycle to the Thumba Launching Station in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala.
• India is the world’s second-largest English speaking country
India is second only to the USA when it comes to speaking English with around 125 million people speaking the language, which is only 10% of our population. This is expected to grow by quite a margin in the coming years.
• The human calculator
Shakuntla Devi was given this title after she demonstrated the calculation of two 13 digit numbers: 7,686,369,774,870 × 2,465,099,745,779 which were picked at random. She answered correctly within 28 seconds.
• Diamonds were first mined in India
Initially, diamonds were only found in the alluvial deposits in Guntur and Krishna District of the Krishna River Delta. Until diamonds were found in Brazil during the 18th century, India led the world in diamond production.
• Snakes and Ladders originated in India
Earlier known as Moksha Patamu, the game was initially invented as a moral lesson aboutkarma to be taught to children. It was later commercialized and has become one of the most popular board games in the world.
• The world largest stadium Sardar Patel Stadium
The Motera Stadium (officially known as Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Stadium), is a cricket stadium in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. As of 2020, it is the largest cricket stadium in the world and the second-largest stadium overall, with a seating capacity of 110,000 spectators.
● SOME EXTRA KNOELEDGE ;
• “[…] Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations in the words as the Government may authorise as occasion arises; and the song Vande Mataram, which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honoured equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it.”(Constituent Assembly of India 1950).
• Different sources give widely differing figures, primarily based on how the terms “language” and “dialect” are defined and grouped. Ethnologue, produced by the Christian evangelist organisation SIL International, lists 461 tongues for India (out of 6,912 worldwide), 447 of which are living, while 14 are extinct.
• “Shah Jahan eventually sent her body 800 km (500 mi) to Agra for burial in the Rauza-i Munauwara (“Illuminated Tomb”) – a personal tribute and a stone manifestation of his imperial power. This tomb has been celebrated globally as the Taj Mahal.”
• The northernmost point under Indian control is the disputed Siachen Glacier in Jammu and Kashmir; however, the Government of India regards the entire region of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, including the Gilgit-Baltistan administered by Pakistan, to be its territory. It therefore assigns the latitude 37° 6′ to its northernmost point.
• A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographical region which has more than 1,500 vascular plant species, but less than 30% of its primary habitat.A forest cover is moderately dense if between 40% and 70% of its area is covered by its tree canopy.